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Hypotension is a condition of the body characterized by low blood pressure. Also, this term means decreased muscle or vascular tone. Hypotension is divided into primary and secondary (as in the case of hypertension).

Symptoms of hypotension include weakness, fatigue, headaches, and dizziness. With hypotension, some vegetative disturbances and disturbances in the work of the gastrointestinal tract can be observed. The development of hypotension is more susceptible to women than men.

It is believed that vigorous physical activity is an excellent cure for arterial hypotension, this is due to the fact that physical activity increases pressure and, accordingly, blood circulation and blood supply.

However, hypotension should not be considered a completely harmless phenomenon and self-medicate. Severe hypotension can even lead to cardiogenic shock (although in many cases, hypotension does not lead to serious consequences). Therefore, consultations and supervision by a specialist with arterial hypotension are required.

Any hypotonic person should reconsider his lifestyle and direct it towards achieving health, because getting rid of arterial hypotension largely depends on the volitional efforts of a person. There are not so many medicinal methods to combat arterial hypotension - medications that can be prescribed to a patient have a stimulating effect on the body, basically all of them contain caffeine.

The term hypotension is multifaceted. This is indeed the case. First, hypotension is called decreased muscle or vascular tone. Secondly, hypotension is low blood pressure. This article will focus specifically on hypotension, characterized by low blood pressure, that is, arterial hypotension (this is a more correct and accurate name).

The main symptom of arterial hypothesis is low blood pressure. This is a fairly long-term state of the body, when the upper pressure is below 100 mm Hg, and the lower pressure is below 60 mm Hg. (Upper pressure is also called systolic, and lower pressure is diastolic.) Although it can be argued that experts have not yet developed a general opinion on these numbers. In the literature on cardiology, you can see other values ​​that, in general, affect primarily the level of systolic (upper) pressure: from 110 mm Hg. Art. up to 90 mm Hg. and below.

Arterial hypotension is divided into primary and secondary. As in the case of hypertension. Primary hypertension, also called essential hypertension, can manifest itself as a predisposition to low blood pressure due to hereditary causes, or as a chronic disease. In the case of a hereditary predisposition, blood pressure does not go beyond the normal range, in this case they speak of physiological hypotension. When hypotension is a chronic disease, it is referred to as neurocirculatory asthenia. Secondary hypotension develops as a result of other existing diseases. It can be hepatitis, peptic ulcer, anemia. In addition, secondary hypotension can be a consequence of side effects on the body from drugs. In these cases, hypotension (secondary) is definitely not a disease, but rather a symptom of another disease. Elimination of this symptom (low blood pressure) will occur if the patient gets rid of the underlying disease that led to secondary hypotension.

Weakness, rapid fatigability, lethargy are symptoms of arterial hypotension. In addition, the patient may experience headaches and dizziness. You can even talk about moving in a vicious circle. A constant feeling of fatigue leads to the development of hypotension, and with hypotension, feelings of depression and fatigue also occur, and sometimes there are even memory problems.

However, the debate about whether arterial hypotension is actually a disease does not stop until now, and each side has its own arguments. The adherents that arterial hypotension is a disease point to a whole system of clinical symptoms of hypotension that must be eliminated. Due to the fact that hypotension requires treatment, supporters of this point of view advocate the classification of hypotension as a disease.

Adherents of the fact that hypotension is not a disease as such, consider it a physiological property of the human body. Proponents of this point of view focus on the fact that hypotension does not cause any pathological and irreversible changes in the human body. In addition, they say that arterial hypotension does not lead to any serious consequences.

Arterial hypotension can be attributed to such conditions of a person when the general well-being of a person is noticeably worsening, but this does not have a noticeable effect on the state of the body. Various autonomic disorders can occur with hypotension. These include sweating of the palms and feet, pallor, and a drop in body temperature to 35.8 -36 ° C.

Subjective symptoms of hypotension include irritability, absent-mindedness, deterioration in mood and memory, and decreased performance. With arterial hypotension, a person has emotional instability, he is very sensitive to loud speech and bright light.

Arterial hypotension is accompanied by dizziness and headaches. The cause of headache, as a rule, is a plentiful meal, prolonged lack of rest, fluctuations in atmospheric pressure. However, the occurrence of headache cannot be called a direct consequence of arterial hypotension.

The cause of a headache with arterial hypotension may be excessive pulse distension of the arteries, in this case the pain has a pulsating character. The headache is localized in the occipital or temporo-parietal region.

Headache may have a different nature of occurrence and be caused by a violation of the outflow of venous blood from the cranial cavity. This difficulty occurs due to the fact that with arterial hypotension, the tone of the intracranial veins decreases. In this case, the pain is localized in the occipital region and, as a rule, occurs in the morning - immediately after waking up, a person feels a pressing heaviness.

Such pain (after the morning exacerbation) gradually subsides. This fact is explained by the fact that with the vertical position of the human body, the tone of the veins increases significantly. As a result, the outflow of venous blood from the cranial cavity is noticeably facilitated - the headache passes.

People suffering from arterial hypotension begin to feel tired immediately after waking up, so in the morning they wake up with great difficulty and feel completely awake. Such people are most active in the evening hours.

It is difficult for hypotonic patients to get up in the morning. It is also possible that after a sudden jump out of bed, the hypotonic loses consciousness, after which the person feels completely broken for a long time. Most often, dizziness and headaches are observed in hypotensive patients in the morning. All this is explained as follows: during sleep in hypotonic patients, the blood is concentrated in the stomach area, as a result of which there is some insufficiency of the blood supply to the brain. In this regard, certain rules have been developed for hypotonic patients to help them feel good in the morning hours too. Firstly, people suffering from arterial hypotension are not recommended to jump out of bed suddenly, but, on the contrary, lie down a little and do light gymnastics. The latter includes stretching, unsharp movements of arms and legs, its purpose is the need to disperse blood through the vessels. Getting out of bed directly is preferable to slowly. It is much better if the hypotonic person first moves to a sitting position, and only then gets up. As for abrupt movements, they generally need to be excluded in the first time after waking up.

With hypotension, gastrointestinal disturbances occur. Therefore, the symptoms of hypotension include such as decreased appetite, heartburn, belching, nausea, heaviness in the stomach, constipation.

Hypotonic people are impressionable people. They consider the manifestations of low blood pressure to be symptoms of more serious diseases. For example, after physical exertion (increased) in persons suffering from arterial hypotension, shortness of breath, discomfort in the region of the heart may appear. All this makes the hypotonic person think that he has angina pectoris or another serious illness - however, such thoughts are often unfounded. However, these thoughts can worsen the general condition of hypotonic patients. People with arterial hypotension prefer to walk (they feel better when they walk due to improved blood supply) than to stand, which is why they are more likely to walk some distance than wait for crowded public transport.

An active lifestyle is the best medicine for hypotensive patients. Any muscle activity leads to an increase in pressure and, as a result, an improvement in blood supply. All of these contribute to getting rid of pain. An active lifestyle becomes the main cure for arterial hypotension if the person suffering from it adheres to an active lifestyle not from time to time, but regularly.

Hypotonics are sensitive to weather changes. People with hypotension find it difficult to tolerate hot weather, spring and autumn off-season. The best weather conditions for hypotonic patients are frosty and sunny winter days. Hypotensive patients feel good on warm days of early autumn and late spring. People suffering from arterial hypotension do not tolerate sudden changes in weather and climatic conditions, as a result of which experts strongly recommend that they spend their holidays in their climatic zone. Acclimatization in hypotensive patients is rather difficult.

Women are more susceptible to arterial hypotension. Most often, it is observed in women between the ages of thirty and forty, but it can also bother women between the ages of nineteen and thirty if they are engaged in enhanced intellectual activity. As for the male part of the population, we can say that in men, arterial hypotension is much less common. In addition, hypotension can develop in healthy people, in particular, in athletes who constantly give their body high physical activity - in this case, hypotension is nothing more than a protective measure of the human body. In this case, they speak of hypotension of fitness, when, with constant loads, the heart rate becomes more rare and the pressure, accordingly, decreases. Arterial hypotension can also occur when the human body adapts to new climatic conditions, as well as under many other circumstances, for example, when exposed to radiation, electromagnetic fields, and allergic reactions.

Hypotension is a harmless ailment that shouldn't be overlooked. A very common judgment. However, this is exactly what you need to pay attention to, and even the most intent - it is necessary to consult a cardiologist in any case. Arterial hypotension can cause a huge amount of inconvenience to a person. Hypotension, in particular, can even interfere with a full-fledged life of a person, if low blood pressure is observed in a patient for a long period of time, this can lead to disruption of the correct functioning of various systems of the human body. As a result, a person with arterial hypotension should consult a doctor in a timely manner and undergo competent treatment.

Primary arterial hypotension is hereditary. It is hereditary predisposition that is considered the main cause of primary hypotension. Actually, we can talk about the presence of hypotonic disease in a person if blood pressure quite often deviates from the lower limit of the norm, that is, it goes down even more. However, it is the predisposition to hypotension that can be inherited, and malnutrition can become a direct impetus to its development. , nervous tension, infections. Other factors can also influence the development of arterial hypotension. In such cases, arterial hypotension is an independent disease, while treatment is based on the fight against low blood pressure.

Secondary hypotension is a symptom of other diseases. Thus, the scheme for the development of secondary hypotension is somewhat different. Low blood pressure can accompany many diseases, for example, heart failure, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, and others. Often arterial hypotension accompanies the course of mitral vascular and heart defects, myocarditis, seriously complicating their course. Hypotension can be observed with vitamin deficiencies, cholecystitis, stomach and duodenal ulcers, and respiratory diseases. As for vitamin deficiency, arterial hypotension is often found with a lack of pantothenic acid (B5) and vitamins B, C, E.

Blood pressure can significantly decrease with poisoning, some types of arrhythmias, allergic reactions. Hypertension. Dangerous to health, sometimes occurs in a patient with the use of some painkillers, which are necessary during abdominal operations.

Drug overdose is another cause of hypotension. We are talking about antihypertensive drugs, that is, those drugs that lower blood pressure. Often this situation occurs during self-medication, when a person decides that he can do without the supervision of a doctor. The consequences of such hypotension are often unpredictable.

Cardiogenic shock is a complication of hypotension. It can have a pronounced course of arterial hypotension. The immediate cause of cardiogenic shock is peripheral circulatory disorders. Signs of cardiogenic shock are difficulty in determining pressure, weakening of the pulse. There is a high probability of fainting, the appearance of symptoms of oxygen starvation. Consultation of a specialist in this case is strictly required.

Naturally, hypotension does not always cause the development of complications, on the contrary, quite often a person with low blood pressure has only one sign of hypotension, which does not prevent him from leading a full-fledged normal life. Moreover, with increasing age, hypotension often goes away on its own. This is due to the fact that with age, blood pressure, as a rule, increases, and there is a risk of developing hypertension.

Hypotension can be troublesome for a woman during pregnancy. During pregnancy, a slight decrease in blood pressure is normal, however, if a woman suffered from arterial hypotension before pregnancy, then the decrease in pressure during pregnancy can be significant.In this case, hypotension can lead to many problems - in severe cases of arterial hypotension, a woman's blood supply deteriorates, this leads to the fact that the child receives less oxygen. As a result, those women who had signs of hypotension before the onset of pregnancy (even if it did not interfere with their normal life) should be monitored by a specialist throughout pregnancy and control their blood pressure. You should know that hypotension, as a rule, does not lead to any problems of problems on the part of the fetus, but for a pregnant woman it can significantly complicate her life in these months - these are constant mood swings (expressed in this case much more strongly than in the rest pregnant women), headaches and dizziness, weakness. To avoid such unpleasant manifestations of hypotension, you should eat right (the diet of the expectant mother should include an increased content of protein foods), provide your body with proper rest (about ten hours of sleep at night and about one to two hours of daytime sleep), walk in the fresh air every day , perform special exercises, engage in the pool. It should be understood that arterial hypotension is not a contraindication for pregnancy.

Preparations containing caffeine are the main drug treatment for arterial hypotension. Drug treatment in this case includes the use of general stimulant drugs. Preparations containing caffeine are one of them. Folk remedies give a good result. These are numerous herbal preparations, including tinctures and decoctions of inflorescences of sandy immortelle, tinctures of ginseng and Manchurian aralia and others. However, their independent appointment to oneself is very fraught, since the same herb (like medications) affects different people in different ways. What specific drugs are required for a person suffering from low blood pressure can only be determined by a cardiologist and only after the cause of arterial hypotension has been established, as well as the characteristic features of its course.

There are few medical methods of combating arterial hypotension. This is due to the fact that hypotension, as a rule, does not lead to serious consequences and does not give serious complications, and is also not very widespread. In the case of arterial hypotension, its treatment depends on the person himself, on his desire and desire to change his lifestyle.

First, hypotensive patients should increase their motor activity (which should become something familiar and ordinary) and make it diverse, because motor activity increases vascular tone. In principle, you should not overdo it either - everything should be in moderation, including physical activity (otherwise the vessels will experience too much stress). The state of the body is very well influenced by walking, various sports games, swimming - the main thing is to get pleasure from all this.

Secondly, a hypotonic person should think about the need for healthy and full sleep - hypotonic patients need to spend more time on sleep than a healthy person, namely: ten to twelve hours (while a healthy person needs seven to eight hours of sleep). People with arterial hypotension especially need sleep during cold weather, when atmospheric pressure is low. Sleep in this case is nothing more than a protective reaction of the human body.

Thirdly, proper nutrition is of great importance. The diet recommended for hypotensive patients is naturally different from the diet for hypertensive patients. With hypotension, it is useful to drink tea and coffee (of course, in moderation) - a cup of strong coffee for a hypotonic person in the morning is simply necessary. With hypotension, it is recommended to include salty and fatty foods in the diet, but in moderation.

With hypotension, dousing with cold water is very useful, but it should be borne in mind that it is necessary to douche with the head. The reason for this is to avoid differences in vascular tone in the rest of the body and the head. Massage procedures are also useful, which help to strengthen the body.

Watch the video: How to Perform Orthostatic Hypotension Testing (August 2022).