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Horses (Equus) are a genus of equids. The limbs are long; only one (middle) toe is developed, clothed with a strong horny cover (hoof) - an adaptation for fast running on dense ground.
The body is covered with short, thick hair; on the upper side of the neck, the hair is long (mane). The same hair at the end of the tail (for some, along its entire length). The molars with flat square crowns are a device for grinding hard plant foods.
In the wild, horses were found in Europe (now exterminated), in Asia and Africa. They lived in steppes, deserts and semi-deserts. They ate grassy food. They usually kept in herds.
There are 8 species, grouped into 4 subgenera: real horses, these include the Przewalski's horse, the exterminated tarpan and the domestic horse; donkeys, represented by the wild African donkey and the domestic donkey; semiaxes (kulan), zebras. In Russia, in addition to the domestic horse and the domestic donkey, the kulan are found, in the southern steppes until the 70s. 19th century the tarpan lived. Most of the wild horse species are almost exterminated and are under protection.
The word "horse", familiar to everyone from childhood, appeared in the Russian language thanks to the Turkic nomadic tribes. Only they called this animal "alosha", but the Slavs "remade" this term in their own way. But the words "horse", "mare" and "stallion" are purely Slavic.
In the old days, no family could do without horses. In villages and villages, horses were indispensable helpers in the household (which, incidentally, is still relevant today), and in large cities this animal served as a means of transportation.
Now, city horses can be found only in riding schools and in the stables of the racetrack. But this does not mean that these animals have become less loved. On the contrary, those who can afford to keep the horses, in every possible way, groom them and cherish. At the same time, the society has developed a lot of all kinds of assumptions about these animals. Let's see if they are really true.
Since a horse has respect for a person, it will never step on it. This statement is debatable. Among the racers there are especially obstinate and harmful ones, for which it costs nothing to touch the hoof to the leg (and not only to the leg, but also to other parts of the body) of a person.
Horses cannot bite. Quite the opposite. If a person (rider) doesn't like the horse for some reason, he can easily "scratch" his teeth about him.
The horse is a very sensitive animal, and thanks to this quality, it understands its rider well. Yes, this happens, but not often. In order for an animal to understand a person from a half-word / from a half-glance, it is necessary, firstly, to earn the trust of a horse, and secondly, the period of communication must be at least a year.
Horses do not remember objects seen with only one eye and therefore, when looking at them with the other eye, they may be frightened. In fact, this is a delusion. Horses perfectly remember everything they see, even with one eye, objects. And therefore, they can unmistakably recognize things familiar to them, regardless of which eye the given thing falls into the field of vision.
Insects can drive horses crazy. Of course, if the animal is not properly cared for, the bites of all kinds of ticks, gadflies and flies will greatly annoy the horse, it will behave very restlessly. And if you take measures to minimize the "attacks" of such insects (for example, after a walk, be sure to inspect) - nothing bad will happen.
The behavior and character of a horse often depends on its name. In most cases, this is true. Although, you can say the other way around: the name of a horse depends on its character. And this fact defies explanation. Most likely, choosing a nickname for his ward, a person is guided by those actions and associations that the behavior and appearance of the animal evokes in him. For example, if a horse has the nickname "Swallow", then its run can actually be compared to the speed of flight of this bird.
The horse cannot think. In fact, these are very smart and wise animals that are capable of independently deliberate actions.
Horses are not color-sensitive. Not at all. They not only distinguish colors, but also associate their associations with them. For example, if a person treated a horse badly, beat it, while constantly being in green clothes, then in the future the horse will always avoid objects that are green.
The ponies were bred specifically so that children could ride them. In fact, these animals were bred in the British Isles in the late 17th century to help people transport coal in the mines.
The bridle tears the horse's mouth. From the point of view of equestrian sports professionals - without "iron" the horse will not behave properly. Here, of course, the factor of cruelty still plays an important role. There are cruel people who don't give a damn about how the horse feels, the main thing for them is that the command is carried out, and it does not matter in what ways they will achieve this. But many horse breeders try to treat their horses carefully and carefully, and some do not use a bit at all.
Equestrian sport is cruelty to horses. For some reason, the mentality of people is based on the fact that a horse (and not only a horse, but also any other animal) can be forced to do something only by inflicting pain on it. And in equestrian sports, this is used quite often, without thinking about the fact that softer methods of influence on the animal can be used.
The age of a horse is recognized by its teeth. Absolutely right. But it is most easily determined until the age of eight, while milk teeth grow. After this period, the age is more difficult to find out. An adult horse has forty teeth. Moreover, teeth have one feature - as the tooth wears out, a new one grows in its place. The older the horse gets, the more clearly the shape of its teeth and jaw changes.
Keeping a horse is expensive. Moreover, if this animal is purebred, thoroughbred. In order to provide her with normal living conditions, it is necessary to have (rent) a stable, buy various feeds, pay the groom's salary, show her to the veterinarian, pay for the services of a trainer. And this is far from an exhaustive list.
Before deciding to buy a horse, you need to work on the stable yourself. Rational decision. This will help you to learn "all the delights" of a horse's life, as they say, "from the inside", starting with cleaning manure and ending with caring for horses. As they say, first the theory, and only then practice.